The construction of one million flats is one of the major projects to increase public access to decent and safe housing that is affordable for one million urban households and slum settlements. The flat construction program has been started since 1974, with the establishment of PERUMNAS which is responsible for housing for Low-Income Citizens and also the establishment of BTN which is responsible for financing housing construction for middle and low-income households.
However, the development program in the 2015-2019 period did not run smoothly. At the end of 2017-2020, a series of construction accidents occurred on a national scale infrastructure project. Recorded in 2017-2020, there have been 88 accidents on construction projects. Of this figure, 30% are construction accidents that occur in building projects. Construction safety is not only related to technical and work accidents in the construction environment but also includes theft, vandalism and threats from certain groups especially for projects located in Eastern Indonesia, such as Papua.
The lack of supervision from supervisory consultants and contractors, the insufficient number of project facilities and infrastructure to control construction safety risks and the absence of standard operating procedures (SOPs) are some of the causes of these construction accidents. Ratih Fitriani raised this issue in her dissertation at the Doctoral Program in Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Indonesia (FTUI), entitled “Development of a Construction Safety Cost Model in Flats Construction in Indonesia.”
“The impact of work accidents is divided into three levels, namely micro, mezzo and macro. Accidents at the micro level will have an impact on human safety, project delays and affect the total project cost. At the mezzo level, it affects the company’s performance and reputation, so that it has a negative effect on the competitiveness index of a country at the macro level,” said Ratih in her presentation.
According to Ratih, there are several obstacles in preparing Construction Safety (KK) costs. The absence of standard work breakdown structures (WBS) has resulted in the scope of infrastructure work being carried out with different WBS. This has an impact on the absence of a detailed COW hazard analysis in accordance with the WBS, so that the COW program will be different and does not refer to the scope of work in the WBS. In addition, different work locations in infrastructure development are a separate obstacle in calculating the COW cost for construction work. This condition resulted in non-standard calculation of the bid price for each bidder.
“Most of the construction works in the public sector in Indonesia use a competitive auction system. This condition causes contractors to suppress prices which results in low construction safety budgets or even the neglect of COW fees at construction work auctions. This creates unsafe and unsafe working conditions on construction projects. No wonder there are many accidents on construction projects in Indonesia,” said Ratih.
In her dissertation, Ratih proposed a cost model for preventing construction accidents in residential buildings by considering the work breakdown structure, building height, location, and safety plan in Indonesia. In addition, these costs are also grouped into general, special and security costs. It is hoped that the results of this study can provide input on policies related to how to calculate the cost of implementing a KK in a condominium building project. Besides that, it can also make it easier for PPK to calculate the need for KK fees at the Self-Estimated Price (HPS) so as to facilitate the auction process.
The construction safety cost model itself is summarized into 5 steps of calculation starting with (1) preparing the WBS, (2) hazard identification and risk assessment, (3) determining controls, (4) analyzing resources, and (5) calculating safety costs.
“It is hoped that in the future this construction safety cost model can be used as a reference in formulating better policies in building a construction safety cost model, especially in the construction of flats. I see that in the future this model can also be developed to be used in calculating construction safety costs for other types of infrastructure development work, such as roads, bridges, dams and others,” said the Dean of FTUI, Prof. Dr. Heri Hermansyah, ST., M.Eng., IPU., while chairing the Ratih Fitriani Doctoral promotion session.
Ratih won a Doctorate degree with Cum Laude predicate at the Doctoral Promotion Session held by the Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, on Tuesday (29/3). He is the 60th Doctor who graduated from the Department of Civil Engineering and the 450th Doctorate at FTUI. The doctoral promotion session was led by the Chair of the Session, Prof. Dr. Heri Hermansyah, ST., M.Eng., IPU. with the Promoter, Prof. Dr. Ir. Yusuf Latif, M.T. and Co-Promoter, Dr. Ir. Putut Marhayudi, M.M. The Examiner Team consists of Prof. Ir. M. Agung Wibowo, MM., M.Sc., Ph.D., Prof. Mohammed Ali Berawi, M.Eng.Sc., Ph.D., Dr. Ir. Yudha Mediawan, M.Dev.Plg., Ayomi Dita Rarasati, S.T., M.T., Ph.D., and Leni Sagita Riantini, S.T., M.T., Ph.D.
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Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Indonesia